The apple season is over, almost. However, the work for orchardists isn’t. The winter season is beckoning on the door and this is the time when apple growers start girding up their loins for the next season. This is the time when they look for preparing up their plants with manure and fertilizers and take measures against pests and fungi. There are many fertilizers already available in the market that include chemical, synthetic, organic and inorganic to name a few. G5 Granules is one of them. Here we have compiled detailed know-how of the product.
Multi-Activity, Bio-organic Granules.
Humic acid and
Anti root rot substances.
A unique patented granular formulation for plant growth as well as for effective preventive measures against pests and fungi if used properly it can do miracles on any crop. Here we will explain to the our farmers/growers G5 formulation is beneficial and cost-effective, how they are benefited by its use also here we will try to explain how each contents helps and what benefits it gives to plant in overall growth and development.
G5 has five different constituents
Seaweeds extracts boost the health and growth of plants it stimulates beneficial soil microbial activity very fast, particularly at the area near and around the white roots where the beneficial fungi and bacteria are known as “mycorrhizae” dwell. This soil area is known as the “rhizosphere”. The rhizosphere activity improves the overall health of plants, also make stronger roots. It also enhances the plants own natural ability to resist and increases the ability to face disease and pests e.g. aphids and other types of sap-feeding insects generally avoid plants treated with seaweed, at the same time it works within the soil to make more nutrients available to the plant through white roots. The rhizosphere forms a nutrient food bank for the plant it can draw on in times of stress also repairs damaged tissues. Seaweed has on the roots in the rhizosphere is due again to the increased mass and depth of the roots the plant is able to draw more moisture from the soil increasing the drought tolerance of the plant.
The root mass also allows the plant to more effectively absorb and use fertilizers that are applied to the plant and soil. The overall stronger root structure help plants physically resist certain types of root diseases e.g. root rot. Seaweed enhances photosynthesis via increasing plants chlorophyll levels. Chlorophyll is what gives plants their green colour. By upping the level of chlorophyll the plant is able to efficiently harness the suns energy. Along with this seaweed has a complex range of biological stimulants, nutrients, and carbohydrates. To date, more than 60 different types of nutrients in seaweed have been confirmed. However seaweed in itself is not a plant food, rather it is classified as a “bio-stimulant.” Seaweed extracts contain natural plant growth regulators (PGR) which control the growth and structural development of plants.
The major plant growth regulator is auxins, cytokinins, indoles and hormones. These PGRs seaweed are in very small quantities generally measured in parts per million.
Indole compounds help the development of plant roots and buds.
Cytokinins are hormones that promote growth via rapidly speeding up the process of cell division making seaweed extract of value in treating tissue cultures. When they are applied to foliage the leaves rejuvenate stimulating photosynthesis, as a result, it stay green longer. The cytokinins in seaweed extract are a major reason when applied to apple and peach trees in promoting the growth of fruiting spurs and cut premature dropping of fruit.
Auxins, also hormones, occur in the roots and stems during cell division. They move to areas of cell elongation where they allow the walls of cells to stretch. Auxins actually give fruits and vegetables a naturally longer shelf life. This is known as delaying senescence: the deterioration of cells and tissues that results in rotting.
Improved cold tolerance: Seaweed treated tomato plants that were able to take temperatures as low as 16 degrees on some varieties. Many more cold tolerant annual flowering plants such as petunia, alyssum, and verbena were able to withstand hard frost and stay green and flowering. Plants that have broken dormancy too early due to unseasonable fluctuating temperatures are able to make it with the help of just one foliar application as have seedlings that were put out and left uncovered.
Insects and Seaweed extract: It has been observed reductions in populations of aphids and flea beetles on seaweed treated plants to the point that these bugs were hardly noticed. Infestations of spider mites have been reduced by 40 to 50 per cent (G5 Foliar). It is thought that the spray may have an effect in disrupting the mite’s reproductive capabilities.
Amino acids-The basic part of living cells is proteins, with building block material, Amino Acids, Proteins are formed by sequence of Amino Acids Plants synthesize Amino Acids from the Primary elements, the Carbon and Oxygen obtained from air, Hydrogen from water in the soil, forming Carbon Hydrate by means of photosynthesis and combining it with the Nitrogen which the plants obtain from the soil, leading to synthesis of amino acids, by collateral metabolic pathways. Amino acids in essential qualities are well known as a means to increase yield and overall quality of crops. Amino Acids can directly or indirectly influence the physiological activities of the plant. Amino Acids are also supplied to plant by incorporating them into the soil. It helps in improving the microflora of the soil thereby facilitating the assimilation of nutrients. Foliar Nutrition in the form of Protein Hydrolysis (Know as Amino Acids Liquid) and foliar spray provide ready-made building blocks for Protein Synthesis.
Effect on Plants:
1. Protein Synthesis – Proteins have a structure-function, metabolic function (enzymes) a transport function and a stock of Amino Acids function.
2. Stress Resistance – Stress such as High temperature, Low humidity, Frost, Pest attack, Hailstorm, Floods have a negative effect on plants metabolism with a corresponding reduction in crop quality and measure The application of Amino Acids before, during and after the stress conditions supplies the plants with Amino Acids which are directly related to stress physiology and thus has a preventing and recovering effect
3. Effect of Photosynthesis – Plants synthesize carbohydrates by photosynthesis, Low photosynthesis rate implies a slow growth leading to death of the plant, chlorophyll is the responsible molecule for the absorption of the light energy Glycine and Glutamic Acid are fundamental metabolites in the process of formation of vegetable tissue and chlorophyll synthesis. These Amino Acids help to increase chlorophyll concentration in the plant leading to a higher degree of photosynthesis. This makes crops lush green.
4. Action on the Stomas– are the cellular structures that control the hydric balance of the plant, the macro and micronutrients absorption and the absorption of gases. The opening of the stomas is controlled by both external factors (light, humidity, temperature and salt concentration) and internal factors (amino acids concentration, abcisic acid etc). The Stomas are closed when light and humidity are low & temperature and salt concentration are high when stomas are closed photosynthesis and transpiration are reduced (low absorption of Marco & micronutrients) and respiration is increased (Carbohydrate destruction) In this case the metabolic balance of the plant is negative. Catabolism is higher than anabolism, this implies slow metabolism and stops the plant growth L-Glutamic acid acts as a cytoplasm osmotic agent of the “Guard Cell”. Thus favoring opening of the stomas.
5. Chelating Effect Amino Acids– have a chelating effect on micro-nutrients. When applied together with micro-nutrients, the absorption and transportation of micronutrients inside the plant is easier. This effect is due to the cheating action and to the effect of cell membrane permeability L-Glycine & L-Glutamic Acid is known to be very effective cheating agents
6. Amino Acids & Phytohormones – Amino Acids are precursors or activators of phytohormones and growth substances. L-Methionine is a precursor of ethylene and of growth factors such as Espermine and Espermidine, which are synthesized from 5 – Adenosyl Methionine
L-Tryptophan is a precursor for Auxin synthesis L- Tryptophan is used in plants in L-Form only
L-Tryptophan is available only if hydrolysis of Protein is carried out by enzyme. If hydrolysis is carried out by acid or alkali, as done in many European countries, L-Tryptophan is destroyed
L-Arginine induces synthesis of flower and fruit-related hormones
7. Pollination and Fruit formation – Pollination is the transport of pollen to the pistil, so fecundation and formation of the fruit is possible L-Proline helps infertility of Pollen, L-Lysine, L-Methionine, L-Glutamic Acid are essential amino acids for pollination.
These amino acids increase the pollen germination and the length of the pollinic tube.
8. Equilibrium of soil flora– The equilibrium of the microbial flora of the agriculture soil is a basic question for good mineralization of the organic matter and for a good soil structure and fertility around the roots therefore due to it plant is healthy and vigorous growth with the increased number of flowers and fruits.
Humic acid – Humic acids make important contributions to soil stability and soil fertility leading to exceptional plant growth and micronutrient uptake. HUMIC ACIDS are extracted from ground Leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite, and are the principal constituents of organic vegetable matter in an advanced state of decomposition. Humic acids have two main components: humic acid and fulvic acid, in different proportions according to their origin and extraction method. The mixture of these acids is generally known as humic acid, because of its universal connotation with the humic concept that describes maximum fertility and optimum soil condition.
Humic acids are reported to increase the permeability of plant membranes, so promoting the uptake of nutrients. There is evidence of a positive effect of humic acid substances on the growth of various groups of microorganisms. There is also evidence that some of the humate materials contain large populations of Actinomycetes (microorganisms that share the properties of both fungi and bacteria). They are capable of degrading a wide range of substances including celluloses, humicelluloses, proteins, and lignin. The coal-humic fertilizers activate the biochemical processes in plants (respiration, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content) and increase the quality and yield of many crops.
The benefit to the farmer
1. Increases crop yield.
2. Increases permeability of plant membranes
3. Increases the uptake of nutrients
4. Enhances the growth of soil microorganisms
5. Activates biochemical processes in plants
6. Stimulates root development
7. Enhances phosphate use of plants
8. Has a high base exchange capacity
9. Stimulants to plant growth
There is profuse growth of white roots. Roots become healthy which ultimately enhance plant growth.
Neem Oil – Neem oil is a natural product derived from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica). Effects neem oil gets into an insect’s body after the ingestion of neem coated roots/plant material and gets to work within a few hours. The main active part in neem oil is called azadirachtin, and once in a pest’s body it directly affects the hormonal system, more so than the digestive or nervous system. The way in which azadirachtin targets the hormonal system means that insects are far less likely to develop resistance in future generations as they are used to many chemicals. As well as azadirachtin, other liminoid compounds present in natural neem oil play a significant collaborative role in deterring feeding and reducing pest populations.
Biological Effects of Neem Oil on Insects
Studies show that a broad range of phytophagous (plant-eating) pest insects are affected and can be controlled by neem oil, these include:
Orthoptera: grasshoppers, katydids, crickets etc.
Coleoptera: wide range of beetles/weevils
Hemiptera: leafhoppers, aphids, psyllids & some scale insects
Lepidoptera: cutworms, borers & caterpillars
Diptera: Sciarid fly, fruit fly, buffalo/blow & March fly
Heteroptera: sucking bugs – Green veggie bug, spotted fruit bug etc.
Others: nematodes, snails, and some fungi and pathogenic viruses
1. Insect growth regulation – Neem oil is unique in nature since it works on juvenile hormones. The insect larva feeds and when it grows, it sheds its old skin and continues growing. This molting phenomenon, also known as ecdysis, is predominantly governed by the enzymeecdysone. When the ingested neem, or more specifically azadirachtin, enters into the body of larva, the activity of ecdysone is suppressed. This causes molting failure and results in the larva not developing to the next life stage, and ultimately dying. If only a small amount of neem-coated foliage is ingested, and the concentration of azadirachtin is insufficient to cause molting failure, the larva will manage to enter a short-lived prepupal stage where it will die. In some instances, where the concentration of azadirachtin is still less, the adult emerging from the pupa will be malformed and sterile, without any capacity for reproduction.
2. Feeding deterrent-One of most important properties of neem oil is feeding deterrence. Most insects are permanently hungry during their larval stages, particularly when they are mobile on the leaf surface. An insect’s maxillary gland is responsible for initiating feeding. When these glands give a signal, peristalsis in the alimentary canal is increased; this makes the larva feel hungry, and makes it start eating. When a leaf is treated with neem oil, the presence of the limonoids azadirachtin, salanin and melandriol produce an anti-peristaltic wave in an insect’s alimentary canal, producing something like a vomiting sensation combined with a reduced ability to swallow. Because of this sensation, an insect will avoid feeding on neem-treated leaf surfaces.
3. Oviposition deterrent– Neem oil reduces pests is by not allowing the females to deposit eggs. This property is known as oviposition deterrence and quickly thwarts the pest population growth. Interestingly, studies by Knapp & Kashenge (Insect Sci. Applic.2003) on spider mites and Singh & Singh (Phytoparasitica, 1998) on fruit flies have shown that natural neem oil formulations are more effective as oviposition deterrents and insect mortality than azadirachtin concentrates alone. Results from Knapp’s & Kashenge’s study showed that azadirachtin does not seem to play a major role in the control of spider mites. Although azadirachtin is an important part of neem oil, the other less studied ingredients seem to have a positive synergistic effect when it comes to effecting the behavior, effectiveness and mortality of plant pests.
Neem Oil’s Effect on Non-Target Species and Beneficial Insects
One of the problems with the use of chemical pesticides has been their impact on non-target species, particularly when used in soil or as a foliar. Usually, they have proved harmful to other beneficial species present in the farm environment. Neem oil products have been remarkably benign to insects such as adult bees and butterflies that pollinate crops and trees, ladybugs that consume aphids, and wasps that act as parasites on various crop pests. As mentioned above, neem oil has to be ingested to be effective. Those insects that feed on plant tissues, therefore, easily succumb. However natural enemies that feed only on other insects and bees and butterflies that feed on nectar rarely come in contact with significant concentrations of neem oil to cause themselves harm.
Anti root rot substances –because of anti root rot, as one of the contents, soil gets sterilized by killing harmful fungi such as Fugerium and Pithium. Root rot fungi can persist for many years in the infested soil by producing overwintering structures. These may be thick-walled spores (Pythium oospores and Fusarium chlamydospores), hyphae (fungal threads of Rhizoctonia), or small dark sclerotia (Rhizoctonia). Overwintering structures are stimulated to germinate by plant exudates from developing susceptible tissue. Structures also may be stimulated by non-host roots to germinate harmlessly or keep up and reproduce themselves until susceptible plant tissue becomes available. The inoculum densities (numbers of survival structures per unit of soil) of these pathogens can be reduced by naturally-occurring soil-borne organisms that are antagonistic to them, anti root rot substance promote such organisms due to its unique constitution.
Dosage – 250g-500g per plant.